Tension headaches are caused by tight muscles in your head and neck. Migraines, on the other hand, are vascular in origin.
Migraine auras are caused by vasoconstriction (tightening of the blood vessels), and the throbbing headache that follows is caused by vasodilation (widening of the blood vessels).
Migraine headaches are often more severe than ordinary tension headaches, are centered around an eye, and may also be accompanied by side effects such as aura, nausea or vomiting, and sensitivity to light or sound.